1.1 神所揀選的必定信主，也必定得救！(Sola Gratia: 全是恩典！極大安慰：神必保守！)
腓2:13因為你們『立志』『行事』，都是神在你們『心裡運行』，為要成就他的美意。(for God it is who is working in you both to will and to work for His good pleasure.)
羅9:17-18因為經上有話向法老說：「我將你興起來，特要在你身上彰顯我的權能，並要使我的名傳遍天下。」如此看來，神要憐憫誰，就憐憫誰，『要叫誰剛硬，就叫誰剛硬』(To whom He wills, he hardens)。
撒上16:14耶和華的靈離開掃羅，有惡魔從耶和華(an evil spirit from Jehovah)那裡來擾亂他。
王上22:20-24耶和華說：「誰去引誘亞哈上基列的拉末去陣亡呢？」這個就這樣說；那個就那樣說。隨後有一個神靈(the spirit)出來，站在耶和華面前，說：「我去引誘他。」耶和華問他說：「你用何法呢？」他說：「我去要在他眾先知口中作謊言的靈(a lying spirit)！」耶和華說：「這樣，你必能引誘他，你去如此行罷。」現在耶和華使『謊言的靈』入了你這些先知的口，並且耶和華已經『命定』降禍與你。(代下18:19)
早期教會：Augustine vs Pelagians
中世紀教會：Lombard, Thomas Aquinas & Late Medieval Augustinianism
18世紀的爭論：John Wesley vs George Whitefield
III. Two Augustines (bound will) (free choice vs will)(arbitrium vs voluntas)(habit, will, act)
Augustine: “For it was by the evil use of his free will that man destroyed both it and himself. For, as a man who kills himself must, of course, be alive when he kills himself, but after he has killed himself ceases to live, and cannot restore himself to life; so, when man by his own free will sinned, then sin being victorious over him, the freedom of his will was lost.”
Luther: “Lombard clearly thinks with Augustine that free choice by its own power alone can do nothing but fall and is capable only of sinning; which is why Augustine, in his second book against Julian, calls it an enslaved rather than a free choice [servum potius quam liberum arbitrium].” ‘a will in bondage’ [servo voluntatis]
IV. Active Presentation of God’s Sovereignty on Evil Acts in Early Reformation
Luther teaches that “what God says must be taken quite simply at its face value” and “the words must be taken as they stand.” (Sola Scriptura also in theological presentation)
Luther: For I misspoke when I said that free will before grace exists in name only; rather I should have simply said ‘free will is a fiction among real things, a name with no reality.’ For no one has it within his control to intend anything, good or evil, but rather, as was rightly taught by the article of Wyclif which was condemned at Constance, all things occur by absolute necessity [omnia de necessitate absoluta eveniunt]. That was what the poet meant when he said, “All things are settled by a fixed law.” And Christ in Matt 10[:29-30]: “The leaf of a tree does not fall to the earth apart from the will of your Father who is in heaven, and the hairs of your head are all numbered.” And Isaiah 41[:23] taunts them: “Do good also or evil, if you can!”
Zwingli: “Here the champions of free will, the logical opponents of Providence are under a delusion. . . . For the same Providence does all this. It not only influences and impels men until murder takes place, but goes further, and forces the judge by the law, goads him with the sting of conscience, drives him by the example of cruelty to bind the robber and raise him upon the cross. . . . In short, God instigated the killing, but He instigates the judge just as much to sacrifice the slayer to justice. And He who instigates, does it without any suspicion of crime. For He is not under the law.”
路德的對手John Eck: condemns Luther and other Reformers teaching Manichaeism and Stoicism.
V. Four Stages of Man: 可以犯罪！不能不犯罪！可以不犯罪！不能犯罪！
VI. 永恆的揀選vs 人的『跟從恩典的參與』（不是能自我的選擇）
VII. Council of Trent 天特會議和加爾文的反駁! 什麼是唯獨恩典？
Calvin: “What was unknown to Augustine, viz., that the reception of grace is not of God, inasmuch as it is by the free movement of our own will we assent to God calling. …The hallucination of these Fathers is in dreaming that we are offered a movement which leaves us an intermediate choice, while they never think of that effectual working…The grace of the second Adam is more powerful. It makes us will, will so strongly and love so ardently, that by the will of the spirit we overcome the will of the flesh lusting against it…. men are not forced by the grace of God against their will, but ruled voluntarily, so as to obey and follow of their own accord, and this because their will from being bad is turned to good.”
 Augustine, The Enchiridion on Faith, Hope and Love, 30.
 LW 33:108. WA 7, 665; LW 32:92.
 Luther, “Assertio,” 306. WA 7, 146.
 Zwingli, “Reproduction from
Memory of a Sermon on the
 Calvin, ACTS OF THE COUNCIL OF