主耶穌和「近在咫尺的『ta』」:跟主耶穌學傳福音、宣教和服事的突破

蔡少琪牧師

(2012年城浸差傳月查經講義)

 

在教會歷史裡,我們常為了一些關乎聖經真理的習慣和規矩,攔阻了神要我們向萬民傳福音的大使命。

當人挑戰約翰衛斯理為什麼他侵入別人的牧區去傳福音時,衛斯理回答說:『希望成為一個真正的基督徒是我的責任,是我的原則!建基於這個原則,這是為什麼我要到美洲宣教,或者到中國和世界各地宣教的原因。』『人用他的道理限制我到他們的牧區去傳道。我卻只接納一個規則,就是聖經。』『我看整個世界為我的牧區。這是我知道神呼召我要作的工作,並且我深信的祝福會伴隨著這工作。』If you ask on what principle I acted, it was this: ‘A desire to be a Christian; and a conviction that whatever I judge conducive thereto that I am bound to do; wherever I judge I can best answer this end, thither it is my duty to go.’ On this principle I set out for America; on this I visited the Moravian church; and on the same am I ready now (God being my helper) to go to Abyssinia or China, or whithersoever it shall please God, by this conviction, to call me…. I allow no other rule, whether of faith or practice, than the holy Scriptures. but on scriptural principles, I do not think it hard to justify whatever I do. God in Scripture commands me, according to my power, to instruct the ignorant, reform the wicked, confirm the virtuous. Man forbids me to do this in another’s parish; that is, in effect, to do it at all, seeing I have now no parish of my own, nor probably ever shall. Whom then shall I hear, God or man?... I look upon all the world as my parish; thus far I mean, that, in whatever part of it I am, I judge it meet, right, and my bounden duty to declare unto all that are willing to hear, the glad tidings of salvation. This is the work which I know God has called me to; and sure I am that His blessing attends it.[1]

 

9:35-38耶穌走遍各城各(all the cities and villages),在會堂裡教訓人,宣講天國的福音,又醫治各樣的病症(healing every sickness and every disease)。他看見許多的人,就憐憫他們;因為他們困苦流離,如同羊沒有牧人一般。於是對門徒說:「要收的莊稼多,作工的人少。所以,你們當求莊稼的主打發工人出去收他的莊稼。」

27:23你要詳細知道你羊群的景況留心料理你的牛群

林前9:22b向甚麼樣的人,我就作甚麼樣的人。無論如何,總要救些人(to all men I have become all things, that by all means I may save some.)

1:14a道成了肉身,住在我們中間,充滿滿的有恩典有真理。

 

1.   前言:很多神重要的僕人都經歷向「近在咫尺的『ta』」傳道和宣教的突破

耶穌會的利瑪竇:放棄僧服,改穿儒服--中國宣教歷史一大突破

利瑪竇易服的這一細節也一直受到中國學者的高度重視,因為一個義大利的耶穌會士改穿中國的儒服,在東西方文化交流史中極具象徵意義。利瑪第一次易服是他入華之初,用中國僧侶的異教服裝易換神聖的修道服來華十二年後再次改穿儒服,是為了融入中國官僚的社會。事實上他多次易服是受制於所處社會的現實情況,他改變形象是為了得到在異地生存及傳教的通行證。”[2]

約翰衛斯理的突破教堂的框架:The world is my parish. 世界是我的區!

173942日禮拜一,他日記記載『我無法使自己安於懷喬治式的禮拜天野外佈道;我生平(直到最近)重視各種禮儀,認為救靈魂之事,若非在教堂中舉行,即無異是一種罪...下午四時,我委屈自己在大街道上宣講救恩的喜訊...即在一個與市區毗鄰的小丘上向三千多人講道。』講道經文是『主的靈在我身上,因為他用膏我,叫我傳福音給貧窮的人。』[3]

摯愛中華--戴德生傳記的第十四章 打破藩籬

現在他每天都穿上中國服裝,而且留了一條長長的辮子。上海的洋人對他的反應,可以在伍喀克所著《遠東的英國人》(The British in the Far East)一書中看出端倪,書上說:「有些人相信人人在神面前是平等的,他們跟著字面的意思,便產生一些大英社會所不能接受的生活行為。大班及其它人都相信:白人的尊嚴跟他們的服飾和習慣是不可分割的。故此戴德生的舉動令人十分震驚,他竟然變成本地人,丟了英國人的臉,打破了白人的團結精神,把他稱為『賣國賊』也絕不為過。」[4]

從服事義大利新移民到創立宣道會宣信博士(1843 1919)

In Louisville, Kentucky: The recently ended Civil war left bitterness and division between the various churches.  As a neutral Canadian pastor, Simpson was used to bring racial reconciliation and forgiveness among the churches. From reconciliation among the clergy came two months of continuous nightly gatherings across the denominations. In 13th Street Presbyterian Church, a prestigious New York congregation:  Simpson loved to reach out to those who wouldn’t normally feel comfortable in a traditional church setting. (1881) When 100 Italian immigrants responded to Simpson’s message, he asked his church Board to admit them as new members. His Board "kindly but firmly refused", for fear of being overwhelmed by immigrants and poor people.  Out of that rejection came Simpson’s vision of a fellowship of Christians where everyone was welcome, regardless of race, income, denomination, or social class.[5]

 

2.   新舊約的神的僕人傳道和宣教突破

雀鳥中你們以為可憎、不可吃的乃是…烏鴉與其類…11:13-15耶和華的話臨到以利亞說:「你離開這裡往東去,藏在約旦河東邊的基立溪旁。你要喝那溪裡的水,我已吩咐烏鴉在那裡供養你。」(王上17:2-4)

約拿和尼尼微城你起來往尼尼微大城去,…因為他們的惡達到我面前。約拿卻起來逃往他施去躲避耶和華。他說:「我發怒以至於死,都合乎理。」耶和華說:「何況這尼尼微大城,其中不能分辨左手右手的有十二萬多人…我豈能不愛惜呢?」

10:14彼得卻說:「主啊這是不可的凡俗物和不潔淨的物,我從來沒有吃過。」

10:28就對他們說:「你們知道,猶太人和別國的人親近來往本是不合例的,但神已經指示我,無論甚麼人都不可看作俗而不潔淨的。」

使10:34-35彼得就開口說:「我真看出神是不偏待人。原來,各國中那敬畏主、行義的人都為主所悅納。」

15:28因為聖靈和我們,定意不將別的重擔放在你們身上

 

3.   主耶穌多番多次向「近在咫尺的『ta』」作出傳福音和服事的突破

主耶穌和撒瑪利亞婦人:撒瑪利亞的婦人對他說:「你既是猶太人,怎麼向我一個撒瑪利亞婦人要水喝呢?」原來猶太人和撒瑪利亞人沒有來往。當下門徒回來,就希奇耶穌和一個婦人說話!舉目向田觀看,莊稼已經熟了,可以收割了。(4:9-37)

主耶穌在安息日拯救病患和失喪生命:耶穌離開那地方,進了一個會堂。那裡有一個人枯乾了一隻手。有人問耶穌說:『安息日治病,可以不可以?』意思是要控告他。耶穌說:『你們中間誰有一隻羊,安息日掉在坑裡,不把他抓住拉上來呢?人比羊何等貴重呢?所以在安息日作善事是可以的。』(12:9-12)

主耶穌血漏的婦人:有一個女人,患了十二年的血漏在醫生手裡花盡了她一切養生的,並沒有一人能好她。她來到耶穌背後,摸他的衣裳血漏立刻就止住了。(8:43-44)『女人若在經期以外患多日的血漏,或是經期過長,有了漏症她就因這漏症不潔淨,與她在經期不潔淨一樣。』(15:25,27)

耶穌和稅吏和撒該:耶穌到了那裡,抬頭一看,對他說:「撒,快下來!今天我必住在你家裡。」他就急忙下來,歡歡喜喜的接待耶穌。眾人看見,都私下議論說:「他竟到罪人家裡去住宿。」撒該站著對主說:「主啊,我把所有的一半給窮人;我若訛詐了誰,就還他四倍。」(19:5-8)法利賽人看見,就對耶穌的門徒說:「你們的先生為甚麼和稅吏並罪人一同吃飯呢?」(9:11)

主耶穌和南外婦人:有一個南婦人,從那地方出來,喊著說:「主啊,大衛的子孫,可憐我!我女兒被鬼附得甚苦。」耶穌卻一言不答。門徒進前來,求他說:「這婦人在我們後頭喊叫,請打發她走吧。」耶穌說:「我奉差遣不過是到以色列家迷失的羊那裡去。」那婦人來拜他,說:「主啊,幫助我!」他回答說:「不好拿兒女的餅丟狗吃。」婦人說:「主啊,不錯;但是狗也吃主人桌子上掉下來的碎渣兒。」耶穌說:「婦人,你的信心是大的!照你所要的,給你成全了吧。」從那時候,她女兒就好了。(15:22-28)

 

4.   總結:『誰是我的鄰舍呢?』…『是憐憫他的。』耶穌說:『你去照樣行吧。』(10:29-37)

雅各、約翰…就說:「主啊,你要我們吩咐火從天上降下來燒滅他們,像以利亞所作的嗎?」耶穌轉身責備兩個門徒,說:「你們的心如何,你們並不知道。」(9:54-55)

1:8a我體會基督耶穌的心腸

2:5你們當以基督耶穌的心為心

“If Jesus Christ be God and died for me, then no sacrifice can be too great for me to make for Him.” 『若果基督耶穌是神,並且為我死了,那麼沒有任何為作的犧牲,對我來說,是太大的!』查理·施達德C.T. Studd 劍橋七傑之一

“It will not do to say that you have no special call to go to China. With these facts before you and with the command of the Lord Jesus to go and preach the gospel to every creature, you need rather to ascertain whether you have a special call to stay at home.『不要說,你沒有特別呼召到中國。當這些事實放在你眼前,並你清楚主耶穌要我們去傳福音給萬民的命令,你需要的,反而是要肯定:你是否有特別的呼召要留在家裡呢?』戴德生



[1] If you ask on what principle I acted, it was this: ‘A desire to be a Christian; and a conviction that whatever I judge conducive thereto that I am bound to do; wherever I judge I can best answer this end, thither it is my duty to go.On this principle I set out for America; on this I visited the Moravian church; and on the same am I ready now (God being my helper) to go to Abyssinia or China, or whithersoever it shall please God, by this conviction, to call me. …But, in the meantime, you think I ought to sit still; because otherwise I should invade another’s office, if I interfered with other people’s business and intermeddled with souls that did not belong to me. You accordingly ask, ‘How is it that I assemble Christians who are none of my charge, to sing psalms, and pray, and hear the Scriptures expounded?’ and think it hard to justify doing this in other men’s parishes, upon catholic principles?

 

Permit me to speak plainly. If by catholic principles you mean any other than scriptural, they weigh nothing with me; I allow no other rule, whether of faith or practice, than the holy Scriptures. but on scriptural principles, I do not think it hard to justify whatever I do. God in Scripture commands me, according to my power, to instruct the ignorant, reform the wicked, confirm the virtuous. Man forbids me to do this in another’s parish; that is, in effect, to do it at all, seeing I have now no parish of my own, nor probably ever shall. Whom then shall I hear, God or man?  I look upon all the world as my parish; thus far I mean, that, in whatever part of it I am, I judge it meet, right, and my bounden duty to declare unto all that are willing to hear, the glad tidings of salvation. This is the work which I know God has called me to; and sure I am that His blessing attends it. Great encouragement have I, therefore, to be faithful in fulfilling the work He hath given me to do. His servant I am, and, as such, am employed according to the plain direction of His Word, ‘As I have opportunity, doing good unto all men’; and His providence clearly concurs with his Word; which has disengaged me from all things else, that I might singly attend on this very thing, ‘and go about doing good.’” - John Wesley, The Journal of John Wesley, July 1, 1739.

http://www.ccel.org/ccel/wesley/journal.vi.iii.v.html

[2] http://www.chinacath.org/article/teo/cul/2010-05-22/6622.html

[3] Monday, 2.—At four in the afternoon, I submitted to be more vile and proclaimed in the highways the glad tidings of salvation, speaking from a little eminence in a ground adjoining to the city, to about three thousand people. The Scripture on which I spoke was this (is it possible anyone should be ignorant that it is fulfilled in every true minister of Christ?): “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised, to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord” April 2, 1739. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/wesley/journal.vi.iii.i.html. 

[4] http://www.cclw.net/soul/daideshen/htm/chapter14.html

[5] http://www3.telus.net/st_simons/cr9605.htm