再思救贖教義的含義系列(四):福音的多元意義

蔡少琪

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大綱

A.    基督信仰為什麼有這麼多的分歧和多元性?

B.     更全面明白福音的全面性:反思幾個與救恩論有關的爭議

C.     『願神的國降臨』:福音應否有影響社會的層面?從加爾文和其他例子看神國度的降臨的全面性,並反思順服在上掌權者的教導!

 

前言:同工預備這系列時,提出以下的問題:『福音在多元社會裡可有哪些不同的面貌和含意呢?在各種社會、文化和政治的因素衝擊下,教會現在也得面對撕裂、分化的問題。究竟,基督教教義使教會內部進一步分裂,還是恢復合一呢?』

 

A.    基督信仰為什麼有這麼多的分歧和多元性?

為何我們有這麼『多元』?那些『多元』是好的,是合理的?那些『多元』是偏頗的,錯誤的,甚至是要批判的?為何不同的神學家、教會和基督徒對救恩論(其他教義或聖經立場)有這麼不同的看法?他們的不同是源自什麼原因呢?

1.      有些『不同』來自『不信』!他們根本就不重視聖經,不接受聖經的真理或者是不接受部分聖經真理。

l   林後6:14你們和不信的原不相配,不要同負一軛。

l   提前4:1聖靈明說,在後來的時候,必有人離棄真道,聽從那引誘人的邪靈和鬼魔的道理

2.      有些『不同』是來自『私心』或『自己的利益』或『暗藏的目的』。

l   12:4-6有一個門徒,就是那將要賣耶穌的加略人猶大,說:「這香膏為甚麼不賣三十兩銀子賙濟窮人呢?」他說這話,並不是掛念窮人,乃因他是個賊,又帶著錢囊,常取其中所存的。

3.      有些的『不同』是來自對聖經的錯誤解釋或不全面的理解。

l   比如:流行的『信徒』和『門徒』的二分法。在用詞方面,新約沒有這種二分。蔡少琪:門徒、信徒、聖徒:聖經的用語有明顯的『信徒』和『門徒』的二分嗎???

n   在華人教會(也包括西方某些教會)裡,有一流行的說法:信徒多,門徒少!我們用此鼓勵信徒成為一個積極追求和委身的基督徒,成為『門徒』!!!這鼓勵有積極性,但就聖經用法而言,聖經沒有這種二分!

n   蔡少琪:我們有委身的門徒,也有軟弱的門徒呢!我們有追求聖潔的聖徒,也有像部分哥林多教會,像嬰孩的軟弱聖徒呢!我們要追求的是一生常在主裡面,一生追求成長的『信徒、門徒和聖徒』!

4.      有些的『不同』是來自對聖經的部分教導的忽略和錯誤理解。

l   就如關乎『飲酒』的教導。聖經強調不可『醉酒』,不是『不可飲酒』。某些中文聖經的翻譯也沒有清晰教導聖經這方面的教導

n   2:3又勸老年婦人,舉止行動要恭敬,不說讒言,不給酒作奴僕,用善道教訓人;正確的英文翻譯是not slaves to much wine;正確的中文翻譯是『不要成為多酒的奴隸』。

n   提前3:8作執事的也是如此,必須端莊,不一口兩舌,不好喝酒,不貪不義之財。『不好喝酒』的英文直譯是not addicted to much wine;不要沉迷於『很多酒』。】【不要不容許喝酒。】

5.      有些的『不同』是來自他們對不同用語的定義的不同。

l   比如:稱義和成聖

n   奧古斯丁看『救恩』有兩個階段,有起步的階段,並最終持守到底的階段。他看唯獨持守到底,才得救。

n   奧古斯丁時代的兩段論的救恩論,只有起步的信,並不帶來得救。蔡少琪:)早期教會的核心關注是信徒必須一生醒,堅持信仰到底。因此,信徒要決定有把握自己必然得救,不是他們的關注。奧古斯丁多次表達類似的教導。他在《責備和恩典》(On Rebuke and Grace)的第四十章(13.40)指出「沒有人肯定自己的預定和得救。」 No One is Certain and Secure of His Own Predestination and Salvation.”他強調有些人,有信仰的開始,但不能持續到底。奧古斯丁是要強調,我們一生都需要緊緊跟從神,要常常謙卑,都需要神的恩典。奧古斯丁在第四十二章指出,有些人有起步的信,但後來離棄神,也因此被神離棄。奧古斯丁在《堅忍的禮物》(On the Gift of Perseverance)一書指出「所以我們不能肯定有任何人在他在生的時候,已經得到神所賜堅忍到底這禮物。若果在他死以前跌倒,他當然沒有被保守到底。」[1]

n   宗教改革家較為將『稱義』和『成聖』略略分開

n   會議後的天主教的『稱義』框架,多用『成義』的表達,多採用奧古斯丁『走到底,信到底,才算為義』的框架。

²  會議(論稱義 1547):CHAPTER VII. What the justification of the impious is, and what are the causes thereof. This disposition, or preparation, is followed by Justification itself, which is not remission of sins merely, but also the sanctification and renewal of the inward man, through the voluntary reception of the grace, and of the gifts, whereby man of unjust becomes just, and of an enemy a friend, that so he may be an heir according to hope of life everlasting….

²  加爾文的評論: After treating, under the seventh head, of The Mode of Preparation, so frigidly that every one but a savories Papist must feel ashamed of such senselessness, they at length, under the eighth head, when they come to define, set out with cautioning us against supposing that the justification of man consists in faith alone. The verbal question is, What is Justification? They deny that it is merely the forgiveness of sins, and insist that it includes both renovation (regeneration) and sanctification….…. It is not to be denied, however, that the two things, Justification and Sanctification, are constantly conjoined and cohere; but from this it is erroneously inferred that they are one and the same…. We acknowledge, then, that as soon as any one is justified, renewal also necessarily follows: and there is no dispute as to whether or not Christ sanctifies all whom he justifies. It were to rend the gospel, and divide Christ himself, to attempt to separate the righteousness which we obtain by faith from repentance. The whole dispute is as to The Cause of Justification. The Fathers of Trent pretend that it is twofold, as if we were justified partly by forgiveness of sins and partly by spiritual regeneration; or, to express their view in other words, as if our righteousness were composed partly of imputation, partly of quality. I maintain that it is one, and simple, and is wholly included in the gratuitous acceptance of God. I besides hold that it is without us, because we are righteous in Christ only.

n   現代不少牧者甚至將『稱義』和『成聖』看為兩個很分割的階段。並且,有些更不看重必須持守到底的真理。這就產生所謂『一次得救,永遠得救』的爭論。

6.      有些的『不同』是來自他們一些核心立場的不同。

l   A. 聖經有清楚教導的,我們才可以教導;B. 按照聖經清楚教導和相關的合理原則,我們也要遵守;C. All Truth is God’s Truth和聖經教導。D. 聖經沒有明顯禁止的,我們也不禁止!

n   1. 聖經沒有禁止的,我們也不禁止

n   2. 聖經沒有清楚容許的,我們也不容許

7.      有些的『不同』是關乎他們是否比聖經教導的全面性、寬度,更窄或更偏或更寬。

l   全面的教導:兩條線的全面神學

n   23:3也不可在爭訟的事上偏護窮人

n   23:6不可在窮人爭訟的事上屈枉正直

n   19:15你們施行審判,不可行不義;不可偏護窮人也不可重看有勢力的人,只要按著公義審判你的鄰舍。

8.      有些『不同』是在乎他們用不同的神學框架。

l   時代論:如何看以色列?在千禧年時,有否以色列國?

l   6:16 凡照此理而行的,願平安、憐憫加給他們,和神的以色列民upon the Israel of God.。【參加爾文的看法[2]

9.      有些『不同』是來自他們採用了某些教會的傳統,並且是剛硬和不靈活地,不是完全根據聖經全備教導的支持下,剛硬地採取了某些傳統和教訓。

l   比如,如何看教會崇拜、禮儀等問題

10.  有些『不同』是源自不同的『屬靈』經歷?並且往往被這些『所謂的屬靈經歷和洞見』主導了自己的看法和神學思想?

l   比如,如何看靈恩問題?方言?醫治?

11.  有些『不同』是他們對現今社會某些處境和時代的判斷的不同。

l   基督徒作為『少數派』?

l   配合政府?參與政府?監督政府?改革政府?反對政府?

l   如何與『無神論的共產政權』交往和配合?

12.  有些『不同』是源於他們自己的處境、利害關係、他們資訊收集渠道、模式和寬窄

l   多看什麼報紙或電視台?蘋果日報vs文匯報?有線vs無線vs亞視?

l   多看facebook短訊?並參閱其他評論平台,比如立場新聞等?

13.  有些『不同』是因為他們對聖經所批判的某些行為有現代的看法?

l   按立女牧師?

l   同性戀?

l   看電影是合乎道德嗎?跳舞可以嗎?

14.  有些『不同』是在乎他們如何處理舊約或新約時代某些習俗?看它們是永恆的教導?定是,只是當時候的習俗?

l   割禮蒙頭;如何看『順服』和丈夫作頭?『吃血』?

15.  有些『不同』是在乎我們如何看新舊約?單單以新約教導或處境為主?定是,以新舊約全面的教導為主呢?

l   13:1-4 在上有權柄的,人人當順服他,因為沒有權柄不是出於神的。凡掌權的都是神所命的。作官的原不是叫行善的懼怕,乃是叫作惡的懼怕。你願意不懼怕掌權的嗎?你只要行善,就可得他的稱讚;因為他是神的用人,是與你有益的。你若作惡,卻當懼怕;因為他不是空空地佩劍;他是神的用人,是伸冤的,刑罰那作惡的

l   聖經有批判『羅馬』或『巴比倫』嗎?

n   14:8 又有第二位天使接著說:「叫萬民喝邪淫、大怒之酒的巴比倫大城傾倒了!傾倒了!」

n   16:19 那大城裂為三段,列國的城也都倒塌了;神也想起巴比倫大城來,要把那盛自己烈怒的酒杯遞給他

n   17:5 在她額上有名寫著說:「奧祕哉!大巴比倫,作世上的淫婦和一切可憎之物的母。」

n   18:2 他大聲喊著說:巴比倫大城傾倒了!傾倒了!成了鬼魔的住處和各樣污穢之靈的巢穴,並各樣污穢可憎之雀鳥的巢穴

n   18:10 因怕她的痛苦,就遠遠地站著說:哀哉!哀哉!巴比倫大城,堅固的城啊,一時之間你的刑罰就來到了。

l   撒下 12:7 拿單對大衛說:「你就是那人!」

l   29:12 君王若聽謊言,他一切臣僕都是奸惡。

l   32:32 是因以色列人和猶大人一切的邪惡,就是他們和他們的君王、首領、祭司、先知,並猶大的眾人,以及耶路撒冷的居民所行的,惹我發怒。

16.  有些『不同』是在乎我們只關心我們自己,自己教會,現今社會,現今處境而設立的神學,定是要建立一個能符合各種處境,各民族能接納和適合的聖經神學?

l   洗禮的例子:《十二使徒遺訓》

n   關於洗禮,首先背誦這些戒律,奉父、子、聖靈的名在流動的水中施洗。不過,如果你沒有流動的水,就在其他水池施洗,如果你不能在冷水中施洗,在溫水也行。如果都沒有,就奉父、子、聖靈的名把水澆在頭上三次。

17.  有些『不同』是在乎某人看自己特有的召命和特別的領受。

l   林前7:6-7【獨身】我說這話,原是准你們的,不是命你們的。我願意眾人像我一樣;只是各人領受 神的恩賜,一個是這樣,一個是那樣。

18.  有些『不同』是源自對其他『不同』的看法和表達有強烈的排他性和批評性,而沒有想清楚彼此之間究竟有何異同?自己有否狹隘、偏頗或錯誤?

l   倪柝聲的「城市,教會」的觀念[3]【一教會,多聚會所】

l   加爾文論天特會議的稱義觀

n   ANTIDOTE TO THE CANONS OF THE COUNCIL OF TRENT.

²  To Canons 1, 2, and 3:, I say, Amen.

²  CANON 19. AMEN.

²  CANON 21. No one says so.

²  CANON 22. AMEN.

19.  還有其他產生『不同』的原因。

 

B. 更全面明白福音的全面性:反思幾個與救恩論有關的爭議

B.1 我們應該有『信徒、門徒』的二分法嗎?

28:18-20耶穌進前來,對他們說:『天上地下所有的權柄,都賜給我了。所以你們要去,使萬民作我的門徒,奉父子聖靈的名,給他們施洗【浸】。凡我所吩咐你們的,都教訓他們遵守。我就常與你們同在,直到世界的末了。』Going, then, disciple all the nations, baptizing them -- to the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all, whatever I did command you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age.

l   這裡有否帶出『福音的廣度、深度』?福音需要的『教導、行道』?

l   反思問題1:我們有否將『耶穌所有的道理,都教導各人,並且有否帶領他們都遵守?』

l   反思問題2:什麼是門徒?門徒與『聖徒、信徒』,在聖經(新約)的使用上是有明顯的分別嗎?

 

B.2 信是否必須包括順服?耶穌單單是我們的救主,定是祂也必須是我們生命的主?

Lordship salvation controversy! Free Grace theology vs Lordship Salvation?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lordship_salvation_controversy

1:8但聖靈降臨在你們身上,你們就必得著能力,並要在耶路撒冷,猶太全地,和撒瑪利亞,直到地極作我的見證人But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth.

l   關鍵是我們『傳福音』的『見證』?定是,我們整個人的生命:我們是否基督的『見證人』(martyrs)?甚至會否願意成為基督的犧牲品、活祭、殉道士?

l   福音的廣度、進程!我們能滿足膚淺的福音進度嗎?神喜悅膚淺的福音進度嗎?

1:5我們從他受了恩惠,並使徒的職分,在萬國之中叫人為他的名信服真道for obedience of faith among all the nations

16:26這奧秘如今顯明出來,而且按著永生神的命,藉眾先知的書指示萬國的民使他們信服真道(to all the nations for obedience of faith)

6:2斷乎不可!我們在罪上死了的人豈可仍在罪中活著呢?

6:15這卻怎麼樣呢?我們在恩典之下,不在律法之下,就可以犯罪嗎?斷乎不可!

6:4所以,我們藉著洗禮歸入死,和他一同埋葬,原是叫我們一舉一動有新生的樣式we too might walk in newness of life,像基督藉著父的榮耀從死裡復活一樣。

6:12 所以,不要容罪在你們必死的身上作王,使你們順從身子的私慾。that we should no longer be slaves to sin

10:9你若口裡認耶穌為主,心裡信神叫他從死裡復活,就必得救。

10:10因為人心裡相信,就可以稱義,口裡承認,就可以得救。For with the heart one believes and is justified, and with the mouth one confesses and is saved.[4]

【聖經有『已然』和『未然』(“already” or “not yet” )

未然的表達的經文:

13:11因為我們得救,現今比初信的時候更近了。because our salvation is nearer now than when we first believed

3:11或者我也得以從死裡復活。If by any means I might attain unto the resurrection of the dead

3:13弟兄們,我不是以為自己已經得著了,我只有一件事,就是忘記背後努力面前的

2:12更是順服的,就當恐懼戰兢,作成你們得救的工夫。

 

B3. 真正的信是否必須有真正美好行為的配搭嗎?

路德在〈基督徒的自由〉裡談到我們不能靠行為,但不能沒有行為。

我們在基督里面的信不是叫我們脫行為,只是叫我們脫論行為的假道理,就是那稱義必靠行為的愚妄的道。因為救贖,糾正,保守我們良心的是信,所以我們知道義不在乎行為——雖然行為是不能也不應缺少的;我們雖然不能缺少飲食屬身體的一切行為。Our faith in Christ does not free us from works but from false opinions concerning works, that is, from the foolish presumption that justification is acquired by works. Faith redeems, corrects, and preserves our consciences so that we know that righteousness does not consist in works, although works neither can nor ought to be wanting; just as we cannot be without food and drink and all the works of this mortal body, yet our righteousness is not in them, but in faith; and yet those works of the body are not to be despised or neglected on that account.

12:1-2所以,弟兄們,我以神的慈悲勸你們,將身體獻上,當作活祭,(to present your bodies as a living sacrifice)是聖潔的,是神所喜悅的;你們如此事奉乃是理所當然的。不要效法這個世界,只要心意更新而變化,叫你們察驗何為 神的善良、純全、可喜悅的旨意。

l   『信』的定義?只是表面的信嗎?要否有從心底有的『真』信嗎?

n   Notitia明白, assensus同意, fiducia信靠(understanding, assent, trust)[5]

l   『心裡』『信』的定義?

l   這『信』是否必須也有生命的改變?定是只停留在『口』的裡『信』或『決志』?

l   真正信主的人,是否應該再隨意犯罪?再隨意、任性地成為『罪的奴隸』?

l   什麼是神要求和喜悅的『信、決志』?

l   『你們』【眾數】要成為『一個』『活祭(a living sacrifice):『信和救恩』是否只是有『個人』的層面?是也必須有『眾人、合一、教會、國度』性的層面?

2:1你們死在過犯罪惡之中,他叫你們活過來。Also you -- being dead in the trespasses and the sins,

2:3我們從前也都在他們中間,放縱肉體的私慾,隨著肉體和心中所喜好的去行,本為可怒之子,和別人一樣。among whom we all once lived in the passions of our flesh, carrying out the desires of the body and the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, like the rest of mankind.

2:12那時,你們與基督無關,在以色列國民以外,在所應許的諸約上是局外人,並且活在世上沒有指望,沒有神。That at that time you were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world

2:8-10你們得救是本乎恩,也因著信,並不是出於自己,乃是神所賜的。也不是出於行為,免得有人自誇。我們原是他的工作,在基督耶穌裡造成的,為要叫我們行善,就是神所豫備叫我們行的For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith-- and this not from yourselves, it is the gift of God—For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God pre-ordained, that we should walk in them.

7:18-23好樹不能結壞果子,壞樹不能結好果子。凡不結好果子的樹,就砍下來,丟在火裡。所以憑著他們的果子,就可以認出他們來。凡稱呼我主阿,主阿的人,不能都進天國,惟獨遵行我天父旨意的人,能進去Not everyone who says to Me, 'Lord, Lord,' will enter the kingdom of heaven; but he who does the will of My Father who is in heaven.當那日必有許多人對我說:主阿,主阿,我們不是奉你的名傳道,奉你的名趕鬼,奉你的名行許多異能麼。我就明明的告訴他們說:我從來不認識你們,你們這些作惡的人,離開我去罷And then will I declare to them, “I never knew you; depart from me, you workers of lawlessness.[6]

 

B4. 仍在罪中的世人有自由意志嗎?亞當墮落前有自由意志嗎?亞當墮落後,人有自由意志嗎?

l   為什麼保羅說:我們在信主前,是死了般?我們在信主前,有自由嗎?有真正的自由嗎?有勝過私慾的自由嗎?

l   自由的定義

n   不牽涉道德的自由:咖啡與奶茶的選擇?選擇不同喜好?沒有救恩的人有選擇的自由嗎?

n   外在表面的自由:禮貌問題?表面的舉動?沒有救恩的人有選擇的自由嗎?

n   較為外在,社會性的行為的自由?對自己父母較為孝順?沒有救恩的人有選擇的自由嗎?

n   完全的善的追求?人有這自由嗎?

n   選擇耶穌,選擇完全順服神?這種選擇『沒有聖靈幫助的人,完全墮落的人,被罪性捆綁的人』有這自由嗎?

n   奧古斯丁主義提出的四個階段的自由

u  人類墮落前:有「能犯罪」的自由(posse peccare) (able to sin)

u  人類墮落後:不能「不犯罪」的不自由(non posse non peccare) (not able not to sin)

u  人類得救後:重拾「能不犯罪」的自由(posse non peccare) (able not to sin)

u  在天家時,因神的永遠同在,人就擁有『「不能犯罪」的自由』(non posse peccare) (not able to sin)

l   墮落前的亞當:有自由選擇嗎?

l   墮落後的亞當和人類:不依靠聖靈,能靠自己選擇神嗎

 

B5. 再思『一次得救、永遠得救』的爭議

反思「一次得救、永遠得救」的神學爭論http://www.chinesetheology.com/CalvinNCalvinism/OnceSavedAlwaysSaved.htm

信是否只是『一次』就可以?『一次得救』代表什麼?我們是否必須信到底?完全離棄信仰的人得救嗎?

l   常常任性、隨意任性,在生命上似乎都沒有順服神的素質,又幾乎完全沒有果子的人,並且常常放縱自己犯罪的人,這些所謂『曾一次決志的人』,是否『真信徒』,是否得救呢?

24:13惟有忍耐到底的,必然得救。But the one who endures to the end will be saved.

10:33凡在人面前不認我的,我在我天上的父面前也必不認他。and whoever shall deny me before men, I also will deny him before my Father who is in the heavens.

提後2:12我們若能忍耐,也必和他一同作王。我們若不認他,他也必不認我們;

9:62耶穌說:「手扶著犁向後看的,不配進神的國。」

4:4-8 撒的時候,有落在路旁的,飛鳥來吃盡了;有落在土淺石頭地上的,土既不深,發苗最快,日頭出來一曬,因為沒有根,就枯乾了;有落在荊棘裡的,荊棘長起來,把它擠住了,就不結實;又有落在好土裡的,就發生長大,結實有三十倍的,有六十倍的,有一百倍的;

4:15-20 那撒在路旁的,就是人聽了道,撒但立刻來,把撒在他心裡的道奪了去。那撒在石頭地上的,就是人聽了道,立刻歡喜領受,但他心裡沒有根,不過是暫時的,及至為道遭了患難,或是受了逼迫,立刻就跌倒了。還有那撒在荊棘裡的,就是人聽了道,後來有世上的思慮、錢財的迷惑,和別樣的私慾進來,把道擠住了,就不能結實。那撒在好地上的,就是人聽道,又領受,並且結實,有三十的,有六十的,有一百倍的。

Calvin’s commentary on MATTHEW 13:18-23; MARK 4:13-20; LUKE 8:11-15

He enumerates four kinds of hearers: the first of which do not receive the seed; the second appear, indeed, to receive it, but in such a manner that it does not take deep root; in the third, the corn is choked; and so there remains a fourth part, which produces fruit.

He only intended to warn us, that, in many persons, the seed of life is lost on account of various defects, in consequence of which it is either destroyed immediately, or it withers, or it gradually degenerates. That we may derive the greater advantage from this warning, we ought to bear in mind, that he makes no mention of despisers who openly reject the word of God, but describes those only in whom there is some appearance of docility.

那撒在石頭地上的,就是人聽了道,立刻歡喜領受,但他心裡沒有根,不過是暫時的:This class differs from the former; for temporary faith, being a sort of vegetation of the seed, promises at first some fruit; but their hearts are not so properly and thoroughly subdued, as to have the softness necessary for their continued nourishment. We see too many of this class in our own day, who eagerly embrace the Gospel, and shortly afterwards fall off; for they have not the lively affection that is necessary to give them firmness and perseverance…. Great commendation is due, no doubt, to that promptitude, which receives the word of God with joy, and without delay, as soon as it is published; but let us learn, that nothing has been done, till faith acquires true firmness, that it may not wither in the first blade…. Such persons, according to Matthew and Mark, are temporary, not only because, having professed, for a time, that they are the disciples of Christ, they afterwards fall away through temptation, but because they imagine that they have true faith.

加爾文:有否提到某些人只是有『短暫的信』,不是真正的信,不是那種有堅定的信?】參閱蔡少琪:加爾文真的教「一次得救,永遠得救」嗎?加爾文對短暫的信的一些講論http://www.chinesetheology.com/CalvinNCalvinism/CalvinOnTemporaryFaith.htm。】[7]

蔡少琪:近代某些對加爾文的評論,或某些所謂的加爾文派,並不代表加爾文和正統的改革宗派的說法。加爾文強調兩方面的真理:信需要堅持的信;信心是來自神的恩典,信是靠神的保守才能堅持下去。加爾文等持守這兩方面的真理。並不是某些人對『一次得救、永遠得救』的膚淺詮釋。】[8]蔡少琪:我認為,更符合聖經的表達是:「真心信主,一生信主,必然得救!」 參閱蔡少琪:〈反思「一次得救、永遠得救」的神學爭論〉;但當聖經談到我們的信時,大多用「現在」時態!這是強調我們必須持續相信主!聖經提醒我們,我們必須自醒「我們現在是否仍然相信耶穌?」我們的責任是堅持「現在繼續信靠主耶穌主的應許是「要保守一切相信的,一切繼續不斷相信的,賜他們永生!」[9]

蔡少琪:若只採用很抽象,沒有詳細解釋,籠統的「一次得救,永遠得救」的說法,我們不能說加爾文有這樣的教導加爾文跟從聖經的教導,在他的《基督教要義》和釋經上,多次和重複地提出,有很多看似信主的,有類似信主的信,但實際上只是短暫相信,最終是淪的。但非常可惜的是文藝出版社舊版的加爾文的《基督教要義》有很多相關的部分沒有翻譯出來。這裡列舉一些這些教導。一些不熟悉加爾文著作和加爾文與加爾文派有區別的人,容易很輕率地說加爾文教導這個講法和真理。以林獻為例(他強調,自己「未讀過加爾文的著作」),他說1536年,他發表了《基督教要義》一文,特別闡明一次得救永遠得救的真理。後來人們通常把反對加爾文信仰的稱為亞米尼派”Arminianism,而把主張一次得救永遠得救的稱為加爾文派”Calvinism.但事實上,加爾文和16-18世紀主流的加爾文派或改革宗派都沒有用「一次得救、永遠得救」或“Once Saved, Always Saved”這些表達。】

加爾文不用奧古斯丁這種框架,但卻一樣堅持要堅持到底的信。蔡少琪:)加爾文強調道者有短暫和些微的亮光,但這些不足夠讓他們在信仰生根,正如舊約的掃羅王也有短暫的信,但最終落在淪中「因第一人【撒種比喻的第一人】的背叛正道,足以在他心思與靈魂上消滅了神的印象,如果上帝把一線光明開導叛徒,以後又叫那一線光明消滅,這是用不著驚異的,也沒有任何事物能加阻撓。他讓某些人稍為領略福音的知識,卻把這知識豐滿地灌輸給另一些人。但必須牢記,不論選民的信仰如何軟弱,上帝的靈既是他們得兒子名分的確實保證,所以他在他們心中的印記是決不會被消滅的;道者只有瞬息消失的一線微光;我們不能怪聖靈欺騙了人,因為他待他們與選民不同,不把生命灌注在他所撒在他們心的種子,叫它有永遠不朽的生命。我要進一步說,我們從聖經和日常的經驗中明明知道,被擯棄的人也有時被神的恩惠所感動,在他們心中必然發生互愛的希望。例如,掃羅有一時候確有愛上帝的敬意向,為他的仁愛所吸引,而領略父的愛。但上帝父愛的信念在道者的內心並非根深蒂固,因此他們不是以兒女至誠之愛他,乃是為圖利的傾向所支配。」[10]

 

6:4-9論到那些已經蒙了光照,嘗過天恩的滋味,又於聖靈有分,並嘗過神善道的滋味,覺悟來世權能的人for it is impossible for those once enlightened, having tasted also of the heavenly gift, and partakers having become of the Holy Spirit,若是離棄道理,就不能叫他們從新懊悔了,因為他們把神的兒子重釘十字架,明明的羞辱他。就如一塊田地,過屢次下的雨水,生長菜蔬合乎耕種的人用,就從神得福。若長荊棘和蒺藜,必被廢棄,近於咒結局就是焚燒But land that produces thorns and thistles is worthless and is in danger of being cursed. In the end it will be burned.親愛的弟兄們,我們雖是這樣說:卻深信你們的行為強過這些,而且近乎得救and we are persuaded, concerning you, beloved, the things that are better, and accompanying salvation

加爾文在希伯來書的釋經

l  這段是關乎完全離開神的人,不是偶然的跌倒:The knot of the question is in the word, fall away. Whosoever then understands its meaning, can easily extricate himself from every difficulty. But it must be noticed, that there is a twofold falling away, one particular, and the other general. He who has in anything, or in any ways offended, has fallen away from his state as a Christian; therefore all sins are so many fallings. But the Apostle speaks not here of theft, or perjury, or murder, or drunkenness, or adultery; but he refers to a total defection or falling away from the Gospel, when a sinner offends not God in some one thing, but entirely renounces his grace.

l  加爾文看這種人就好像耶穌警告過的,就是那些褻瀆聖靈的人:For he falls away who forsakes the word of God, who extinguishes its light, who deprives himself of the taste of the heavens or gift, who relinquishes the participation of the Spirit. Now this is wholly to renounce God. We now see whom he excluded from the hope of pardon, even the apostates who alienated themselves from the Gospel of Christ, which they had previously embraced, and from the grace of God; and this happens to no one but to him who sins against the Holy Spirit.【路12:10凡說話干犯人子的,還可得赦免;惟獨褻瀆聖靈的,總不得赦免。】

l  加爾文看這些人是得救的人,就如撒種比喻落在淺土上的人一樣。神給他們有一些經歷和體會,但他們不是真的全心相信,他們不是真信徒。But I cannot admit that all this is any reason why he should not grant the reprobate also some taste of his grace, why he should not irradiate their minds with some sparks of his light, why he should not give them some perception of his goodness, and in some sort engrave his word on their hearts. Otherwise, where would be the temporal faith mentioned by Mark 4:17? There is therefore some knowledge even in the reprobate, which afterwards vanishes away, either because it did not strike roots sufficiently deep, or because it withers, being choked up.

 

B6. 蔡少琪:〈反思「一次得救、永遠得救」的神學爭論

http://www.chinesetheology.com/OnceSavedAlwaysSaved.htm

 

C. 『願神的國降臨』:福音應否有影響社會的層面?從加爾文和其他例子看神國度的降臨的全面性,並反思順服在上掌權者的教導!【投影篇】

馮蔭坤對羅馬書131-7的『順服在上掌權者』的分析和評語【標題等部分是蔡少琪加以整理和補充的】:http://www.chinesetheology.com/FungOnRom13.htm

如何遵行『順服在上掌權者』http://www.chinesetheology.com/HowToObeyOurGovernments.htm

尊重在上掌權者131-7

當我們提到「順服在上掌權者」時,聖經不是叫我們順服暴君,13章一開始說「所有生命要順服在上掌權者」,「順服」一詞由兩個希臘文「hupotasso」連成,「hupo」即「under」、下面,「tasso」解作「放在」,全句指我們是被神放在這位掌權者以下的群體,就應該懂得尊重和順服這在上掌權者。

這裡提到一個真正是『神的僕人』(a servant/deacon of God) (θεοῦ διάκονός)的官員的應有素質。

1.   他是一個僕人!他不是霸王!不是專制!就如教會中的『執事』和『領袖』一樣,都應該成為『眾人的僕人』!

2.   他是『神的執事/工人』!他要按照神的心意去管理百姓!

3.   他原不是叫行善的懼怕!他不應該『打擊』『美善行為』!若果一個政權是『打擊美善的』,他就沒有做好他這『在神之下』,而『在人民之上』的位置了!所以,有名的中世紀神學家阿奎那 (Thomas Aquinas)留下一個流行的名句:「不義的法律根本就不是法律!」(Unjust law is no law at all.) 他更補充強調,說:「那些敵對神的法律的不義的法律,我們不應該遵守。就如使徒行傳5:29所聲明的:『順從神,不順從人,是應當的。』」

4.   他應該是要叫『作惡』的懼怕,並且要『刑罰』作惡的!若果『政權』縱然邪惡,欺壓『良善』,就如希特勒的時代,也如埃及法老的時代,那些不聽法老殺害人命的命令的收生婆,反而得到神的賞賜。

5.   他應該鼓勵、肯定和獎賞『行善』的!讓『行善』的願意親近他,不懼怕他!若果一個『政權』讓『行善』的遠離它、憎厭它、懼怕它。這『在上掌權的』和『政權』就應該深切檢討了。

6.   他應該是為『有冤屈』的人『伸冤』的!他不應該『製造』冤情,而應該是為受壓迫的,被欺凌的人『伸冤』!

 

不要『愚忠、愚孝』,當『君上』、『父母』或『在上』犯錯時,要有諫諍

中國人很多時被「愚忠」觀念影響,民間大戲有謂「君要臣死,臣不死是為不忠、父要子亡,子不亡是為不孝」,但這極端的看法並非儒家的思想。 <孟子‧盡心下>有「民為貴,社稷次之,君為輕」之說,其後又提到若諸侯危害社稷,諸侯便應撤換。人家問孟子,究竟商周朝代更迭,周武王殺死紂王,算不算弑君呢?孟子道:「賊人者,謂之賊;賊義者,謂之殘,殘賊之人,為之夫。」(<孟子梁惠王下>)

當君王作愚蠢的行為時,聖經有不少正面反對、直接責備或暗地反對的例子

撒上14:44-45掃羅說:「約拿單哪,你定要死!若不然,願神重重地降罰與我。」百姓對掃羅說:「約拿單在以色列人中這樣大行拯救,豈可使他死呢?斷乎不可!我們指著永生的耶和華起誓,連他的一根頭髮也不可落地,因為他今日與神一同做事。」於是百姓救約拿單免了死亡。

5:11-12你們踐踏貧民我知道你們的罪過何等多,你們的罪惡何等大。你們苦待義人,收受賄賂,在城門口屈枉窮乏人。

1:17但是收生婆敬畏神,不照埃及王的吩咐行,竟存留男孩的性命



[1] http://www.chinesetheology.com/CalvinNCalvinism/CalvinOnTemporaryFaith.htm

[2] There are two classes who bear this name, a pretended Israel, which appears to be so in the sight of men, — and the Israel of God. Circumcision was a disguise before men, but regeneration is a truth before God. In a word, he gives the appellation of the Israel of God to those whom he formerly denominated the children of Abraham by faith, (Galatians 3:29,) and thus includes all believers, whether Jews or Gentiles, who were united into one church. On the contrary, the name and lineage are the sole boast of Israel according to the flesh; and this led the apostle to argue in the Epistle to the Romans, that “they are not all Israel which are of Israel, neither because they are the seed of Abraham, are they all children.” (Romans 9:6.) http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/view.cgi?bk=47&ch=6

[3]呂沛淵:榮耀的教會:倪柝聲弟兄的教會論。『倪弟兄主張‘一城市一教會’的立場,其所謂聖經根據亦有可商榷之處。希臘文名詞的單複數用法,並非按照字形一成不變。有時單數做‘集合名詞’表達眾述;複數也可表達‘共同範疇’的單一觀念。所以,倪弟兄單以‘教會’此詞的單複數,推出其‘一地一會’的論據,是失之牽強。即便聖經所即當時情形是‘一城市一教會’,也不能正面此為聖經的古今一致的命令。』『他指出新約聖經說到在‘城市’(如哥林多,耶路撒冷,以所等地)的‘教會’,是單數形;但在‘行省或大區域’(如亞西亞,馬其頓,加拉太,猶太等地)的‘教會’,則是複數形。他認為此區分顯明城市只有教會;省內有許多城市,所以有眾教會此外,倪弟兄根據使徒行傳十四章23節(在各‘教會’設立長老)與提多書一章5節(在各‘城’設立長老)結論說‘城市’是‘地方教會’的地界。』『他認為聖經的原則是‘一地一會’,唯有堅持地方教會,才能避免宗派主義的發展。』

[4] Calvin: “But let us observe this, — that the seat of faith is not in the head, ( in cerebro — in the brain,) but in the heart. Yet I would not contend about the part of the body in which faith is located: but as the word heart is often taken for a serious and sincere feeling, I would say that faith is a firm and effectual confidence, ( fiducia — trust, dependence,) and not a bare notion only.” Commentary on Rom. 10:10.

[5] “The Protestant Reformers recognized that biblical faith has three essential aspects: notitia, assensus, and fiducia.

Notitia. 明白Notitia refers to the content of faith, or those things that we believe. We place our faith in something, or more appropriately, someone. In order to believe, we must know something about that someone, who is the Lord Jesus Christ.

Assensus. 同意Assensus is our conviction that the content of our faith is true. You can know about the Christian faith and yet believe that it is not true. Genuine faith says that the content — the notitia taught by Holy Scripture — is true.

Fiducia. 信靠Fiducia refers to personal trust and reliance. Knowing and believing the content of the Christian faith is not enough, for even demons can do that (James 2:19). Faith is only effectual if, knowing about and assenting to the claims of Jesus, one personally trusts in Him alone for salvation.”

參閱 http://www.ligonier.org/learn/devotionals/faith-defined/.

[6] Calvin’s commentary on Matt. 7: “In a word, he declares that, so soon as the doctrine of the Gospel shall have begun to bear fruit by obtaining many disciples, there will not only be very many of the common people who falsely and hypocritically submit to it, but even in the rank of pastors there will be the same treachery, so that they will deny by their actions and life what they profess with the mouth. Whoever then desires to be reckoned among the disciples, must labor to devote himself, sincerely and honestly, to the exercises of a new life.” “That he never reckoned them among his own people, even at the time when they boasted that they were the pillars of the church.

Depart from me. He orders those persons to go out from his presence, who had stolen, under a false title, an unjust and temporary possession of his house. From this passage in our Lord’s discourse Paul seems to have taken what he says to Timothy,

The Lord knoweth who are his: and, let every one who calleth on the name of Christ depart from iniquity, (2 Timothy 2:19.) 提後2:19然而神堅固的根基立住了,上面有這印記說:主認識誰是他的人,又說:凡稱呼主名的人,總要離開不義。

[7] 蔡少琪:加爾文清楚教導有很多人會離開信仰。離開信仰的是有「暫時的信」,不是真信徒,而真信徒卻是有「持續到底的信」「可見信仰不是那沒有真信仰之人所能假造的;當他們倉惶間為強烈的情緒所驅使,就為錯誤的意見所欺騙。毫無疑問,怠惰在他們心根深蒂固,使他們不能好好地反省。這一類可能就是約翰所指的人,他們雖相信耶穌,而耶穌卻不將自己交托他們,因為他知道萬人也知道人心所存的22425),如果不是有許多人偏離了共同的信仰(我稱它為共同的信仰,因為在暫時和永遠的信仰(fidei temporalis cum viva et perpetua)(between transitory faith and living and permanent faith)之間有很大的類似之點)[10],基督不會對門徒說:你們若常遵守我的道,就真是我的門徒,你們必曉得真理,真理必叫你們得以自由(約83132)。」(《基督教要義》,3.2.12)

加爾文稱呼這些「沒有真內涵的信」(unformed faith)為「信的影子」(shadow or image of faith)( umbra, seu imago),這些不是「真信」(true faith)(verum fidei)

加爾文跟隨主耶穌的說法,稱呼這些「表面」的信,為「短暫的信」,並且引用主耶穌撒種的比喻來指出,這些「短暫的信」沒有果子,也沒有扎根。加爾文指出「不信的」和「不得拯救的」(reprobate)也可以有類似的信的影子。他將「短暫的信」與希伯來書中談及曾嘗過救恩滋味後離開的人一拼討論。

http://www.chinesetheology.com/CalvinNCalvinism/CalvinOnTemporaryFaith.htm

[8] http://www.chinesetheology.com/CalvinNCalvinism/CalvinOnTemporaryFaith.htm

[9] http://www.chinesetheology.com/CalvinNCalvinism/OnceSavedAlwaysSaved.htm

[10] Calvin: “To sum up, just as by the rebellion of the first man the image of God could be wiped out from his mind and soul, no wonder he illumines wicked persons with some rays of his grace, which he later allows to be quenched. Nor does anything prevent him from lightly touching some with a knowledge of his gospel, while deeply imbuing others. In the meantime we ought to grasp this: however deficient or weak faith may be in the elect, still, because the Spirit of God is for them the sure guarantee and seal of their adoption, the mark he has engraved can never be erased from their hearts; but on the wicked such light is shed as may afterward pass away. Yet, because he does not give life to the seed that lies in their hearts to keep it ever incorruptible as in the elect, it must not be supposed that the Holy Spirit is false.” “Furthermore, although it is evident from the teaching of Scripture and daily experience that the wicked are sometimes touched by the awareness of divine grace, a desire to love one another must be aroused in their hearts. Thus, for a time in Saul there flourished a pious impulse to love God. For he knew God was as a father to him, and he was attracted by something delightful about His goodness [1 Samuel, chs. 9 to 11]. But as a persuasion of God’s fatherly love is not deeply rooted in the reprobate, so do they not perfectly reciprocate his love as sons, but behave like hirelings. For that Spirit of love was given to Christ alone on the condition that he instill it in his members.”” Inst. 2.2.12.