經歷耶穌的經歷:《路加福音》的簡介

(整理中)

蔡少琪

回到 華人神學園地

1.    進入冰冷世界的耶穌

2.    愛貧窮人的耶穌

3.    愛罪人的耶穌

4.    用小人物的耶穌

 

A.  一些關於路加福音的網絡連結

網絡連結參考:http://www.chinesetheology.com/BS/Luke.htm

www.chinesetheology.com/Luke.htm

 

B.路加福音的簡單背景資料

1. 路加福音的作者和寫作日期:路加醫生

西 4:14 所親愛的『醫生路加』(Λουκᾶς  ἰατρὸς  ἀγαπητὸς)和底馬問你們安。

提後 4:11 獨有路加在我這裡。你來的時候,要把馬可帶來,因為他在傳道的事上於我有益處。

1:24 與我同工的馬可、亞里達古、底馬、路加也都問你安。

http://ccbiblestudy.net/Topics/96Person/96GT205.htm

一些最早的蒲草紙聖經:Papyrus 75 (175-225 A. D.); Papyrus 4

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papyrus_75

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papyrus_4

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_New_Testament_papyri

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biblical_manuscript

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_New_Testament_uncials

http://www.codexsinaiticus.org/en/manuscript.aspx?book=35&chapter=1&lid=en&side=r&zoomSlider=0

 

2. 路加福音和使徒行傳(從『他們』到『我們』的經文(From “they” to "we")

http://www.christianstudy.com/data/intro/nt_acts.html

https://www.academia.edu/6456201/The_We_Passages_in_the_Book_of_Acts_Luke_as_Eyewitness

16:6-10 聖靈既然禁止『他們』在亞細亞講道,『他們』就經過弗呂家、加拉太一帶地方。『他們』就越過每西亞,下到『特羅亞』(Troas)去。….保羅既看見這異象,『我們』隨即想要往馬其頓去,以為神召我們傳福音給那裡的人聽。【參考徒16:10–17; 20:5–15; 21:1–18; 27:1– 28ESV Acts 16:8, 10 So, passing by Mysia, they went down to Troas. And when Paul had seen the vision, immediately we sought to go on into Macedonia, concluding that God had called us to preach the gospel to them.

 

3. 路加的背景和路加福音寫作日期

傳統一個主流看法:路加醫生是在『特羅亞』(Troas)正式參與保羅的行程!

21:15『我們』收拾行李上耶路撒冷去。

23:33馬兵來到該撒利亞,把文書呈給巡撫,便叫保羅站在他面前。

保羅在耶路撒冷和該撒利亞被監禁期間,路加醫生可能訪問了很多人,並對路加福音的寫作,作了很好的準備。

【保羅約在主後56-60年期間中的兩年被囚禁在該撒利亞】

【若看路加福音是比馬可更早寫成,路加福音的寫作日期可以在58-60年期間。若看路加是在馬可福音之後寫成的,有些推測路加福音的寫作時間是主後70-80年。】

【路加是安提阿人的背景?】

優西比烏Eusebius(260-340 A. D.)

But Luke, who was of Antiochian parentage and a physician by profession, and who was especially intimate with Paul and well acquainted with the rest of the apostles, has left us, in two inspired books, proofs of that spiritual healing art which he learned from them. One of these books is the Gospel, which he testifies that he wrote as those who were from the beginning eyewitnesses and ministers of the word delivered unto him, all of whom, as he says, he followed accurately from the first. Luke 1:2-3 The other book is the Acts of the Apostles which he composed not from the accounts of others, but from what he had seen himself. (Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 3.4.7).6:5大眾都喜悅這話,就揀選了司提反,乃是大有信心,聖靈充滿的人,又揀選腓利,伯羅哥羅,尼迦挪,提門,巴米拿,並進猶太教的安提阿人尼哥拉(詳細介紹安提阿:徒11:19-30; 13:1; 14:26-28; 15:22, 30-35; 18:22)

 

3. 早期教父談論路加和路加福音

教父愛任紐Irenaeus130-202 A.D.)曾這樣說:「保羅的同伴路加在他的一部作品裡,記錄了保羅所宣講的福音。」(約主後一百八十年) “Matthew also issued a written Gospel among the Hebrews in their own dialect, while Peter and Paul were preaching at Rome, and laying the foundations of the Church. After their departure, Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, did also hand down to us in writing what had been preached by Peter. Luke also, the companion of Paul, recorded in a book the Gospel preached by him. Afterwards, John, the disciple of the Lord, who also had leaned upon His breast, did himself publish a Gospel during his residence at Ephesus in Asia.” (Against Heresies 3.1.1)

http://www.systematicchristianity.org/TheGospelAccordingToLukeAndActs.htm

愛任紐Irenaeus首先提出『我們經文』的看法: “But that this Luke was inseparable from Paul, and his fellow-labourer in the Gospel, he himself clearly evinces, not as a matter of boasting, but as bound to do so by the truth itself. For he says that when Barnabas, and John who was called Mark, had parted company from Paul, and sailed to Cyprus, we came to Troas; Acts 16:8, etc. and when Paul had beheld in a dream a man of Macedonia, saying, Come into Macedonia, Paul, and help us, immediately, he says, we endeavoured to go into Macedonia, understanding that the Lord had called us to preach the Gospel unto them. Therefore, sailing from Troas, we directed our ship's course towards Samothracia.” (Against Heresies 3.14.1)

http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0103314.htm

 

優西比烏Eusebius(260-340 A. D.) 引用革利免Clement(150-215 A.D.),談到福音書的次序:馬太和路加先,然後馬可,然後約翰!

Again, in the same books, Clement gives the tradition of the earliest presbyters, as to the order of the Gospels, in the following manner:

The Gospels containing the genealogies【馬太和路加】, he says, were written first. The Gospel according to Mark had this occasion. As Peter had preached the Word publicly at Rome, and declared the Gospel by the Spirit, many who were present requested that Mark, who had followed him for a long time and remembered his sayings, should write them out. And having composed the Gospel he gave it to those who had requested it.

When Peter learned of this, he neither directly forbade nor encouraged it. But, last of all, John, perceiving that the external facts had been made plain in the Gospel, being urged by his friends, and inspired by the Spirit, composed a spiritual Gospel. This is the account of Clement. (Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 6.14.5-7).

http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/250106.htm

http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/250103.htm

 

奧古斯丁:『先是馬太,然後是馬可,第三是路加,然後是約翰。』are believed to have written in the order which follows: first Matthew, then Mark, thirdly Luke, lastly John. (The Harmony of the Gospels 1.2.3)

http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/250106.htm

http://atrio21.hopto.org/wiki/index.php?edition-view-798-1

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustinian_hypothesis

http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/1602102.htm

 

4. 路加福音的主題和特色

一個流行的說法:『馬太記載主耶穌是王,馬可記載祂是僕人,路加記載祂是人子,約翰記載祂是神子。』

在四福音裡:

『王』(βασιλεὺς)(King)一詞共出現61次(馬太22次;馬可12次;路加11次;約翰16次)。

『國、國度』(βασιλεία)(kingdom)一詞共出現126次(馬太55次;馬可20次;路加46次;約翰5次)。

馬可福音其中一個特別用詞『隨即、立刻』(εὐθύς)(immediately)一詞共出現54次(馬太6次;馬可42次;路加3次;約翰3次)。【部分是『直』(straight)的用詞】【這是帶出主耶穌這僕人的勤奮和到處奔波的辛勞!】

“Son of God” 『神子』在YLT版本共出現22次(馬太3次;馬可4次;路加5次;約翰10次)。【類似ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου的用詞】

http://bible.fhl.net/new/search.php?VERSION=unv&TABFLAG=1&orig=1&strongflag=1&keyword=02117&RANGE=3&range_bid=40&range_eid=43&m=

 “Son of man” 人子』在YLT版本共出現83次(馬太32次;馬可14次;路加25次;約翰12次)。【類似ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου的用詞】(5:24; 6:5; 7:34; 9:22, 26, 44, 56, 58; 11:30; 12:8, 10, 40; 17:22, 24, 26, 30; 18:8, 31; 19:10; 21:27, 36; 22:22, 48, 69; 24:7)

https://bible.fhl.net/new/search.php?keyword=%E4%BA%BA%E5%AD%90&submit1=%E6%9F%A5%E8%A9%A2&RANGE=0&range_bid=40&range_eid=43&VERSION=unv&orig=0

『救』(σῴζω)(sozo)(save) 一詞共出現56次(馬太16次;馬可15次;路加17次;約翰6次)。

救主(σωτὴρ)(sōtḗr)(so-tare')(saviour) 一詞共出現3(1:47; 2:11; 4:42)

2:11 因今天在大衛的城裡,為你們生了『救主』,就是主基督。

罪人(和合本)共出現31次(馬太5次;馬可5次;路加17次;約翰4次)。

5:32 我來本不是召義人悔改,乃是召罪人悔改。

7:34 人子來,也吃也喝,你們說他是貪食好酒的人,是稅吏和罪人的朋友。

19:7「他竟到罪人家裡去住宿。」

15:7 我告訴你們,一個罪人悔改,在天上也要這樣為他歡喜,較比為九十九個不用悔改的義人歡喜更大。

 

黃迦勒:《基督徒文摘解經系列──路加福音註解》【摘要】

http://ccbiblestudy.net/New%20Testament/42Luke/42CT00.htm

()是一本外邦人的福音書』:以外邦人的詞語來代替猶太人的慣用語,例如:用「夫子」代替『拉比』(33;參可九5);用「大聲讚美神」代替『和散那』(十九37;參太廿一9)

()是一本普世性的福音書』:本書強調耶穌基督乃是「萬民」的救主(1031~32;三6),因此所記載的耶穌家譜,並非止於猶太人的祖先亞伯拉罕,而一直追溯到人類的始祖亞當(23~38;參太一2~16)

()是一本窮人的福音書』

()是一本『婦孺的福音書』:雖然當時婦女在社會上的地位相當低微,但婦女在本書中卻非常突出,用許多篇幅來記載婦女們的事蹟,例如:以利沙伯和馬利亞(24~56);女先知亞拿(36~38);拿因城的寡婦(11~16);有罪的女人(37~50);被主治好和用財物供應主的婦女們(2~3);患血漏的女人(43~48);馬大和馬利亞(38~42);駝背的女人(十三11~16);寡婦向不義的官求伸冤(十八1~5);在聖殿裏捐錢的窮寡婦(廿一1~4);為主哀哭的婦女們(廿三27~31);等等。

()是一本被遺棄者的福音書』:本書常提及被社會遺棄的邊緣人物,特別描寫耶穌如何照顧他們身、心、靈的需要。

()是一本『對感興趣的福音書』:與《馬太福音》迥然不同──後者偏重於『天國』,而本書則偏重於『個人』。並且本書也非常注意個人的信仰告白,例如:以利沙伯(41~45);馬利亞(46~55);撒迦利亞(68~79);西面(28~32);西門彼得(8);一個百夫長(6~8);稅吏撒該(十九8);悔改的強盜(廿三42);等等。

()是一本禱告的福音書』:本書除了多次記載主耶穌教導門徒禱告(十一2~13;十八1~89~14)之外,它所記載主自己的禱告次數,遠比馬太和馬可福音為多。因此有人說,《路加福音》是一本禱告的福音書。

()是一本『靠聖靈行事的福音書』

()是一本喜樂的福音書』

()是一本『教導正確金錢觀的福音書』

 

Charles Puskas: Key Themes of Luke-Acts

Seven major themes in Luke-Acts: (1) salvation to the Gentiles, (2) progression of the gospel, (3) the Holy Spirit, (4) prayer, (5) wealth, poverty and themarginalized, (6) Christianity as the true Israel, and (7) fair treatment under Rome. The author of Luke-Acts seeks to show that Jesus and his followers were faithfulIsraelites and therefore heirs to the promises of God. We note features which reveal Luke’s concern to winthe sympathy of the secular Roman world. Although the Jewish leaders accused Jesus of religious apostasy and political sedition, the Roman prefect Pontius Pilate, three times declared him innocent of anycrime (Lk 23:4, 14, 22). Roman officials are converted to Christianity, and Paul inhis journeys receives favorable treatment from Romans. The Roman centurion Cornelius and hishousehold receive the Spirit and are baptized in water under Peter’s ministry (Acts 10:1-11:18).The proconsul of Cyprus, Sergius Paulus, favorably responds to the preaching of Paul andBarnabas (13:7-12). On two occasions, Paul is also rescued from death by Romans. With the above theme of Roman tolerance, Luke makes an appeal for Rome to continueits fair treatment toward the new world-expanding religion.

https://www.academia.edu/4196090/Chapter_6_Key_Themes_of_Luke-Acts

 

C. 路加福音部分特有的比喻和教導

(一)誰是我的鄰舍?(10:25-37)

(二)麻煩的半夜的請求!你願意開門嗎?(11:5-8)

(三)『富裕』『愚蠢人』的比喻 Rich Fool(12:14-21)

(四)我們有『白佔地土』嗎?(13:6-9)

(五)有狠心愚蠢的浪子嗎?(15:11-32)

(六)你有天父慈悲的心腸嗎?

(七)誰是更大的『浪子』?

(八)不義但精明(珍惜朋友)的管工(16:1-15)

(九)拉撒路真的有福嗎?財主真的有禍嗎?(16:19-31)

(十)誰會羨慕拉撒路呢?

(十一)你愛主比她多嗎?(7:36-50)

(十二)神是多麼愛惜『迷羊』呢?(15:1-7)

(十三)你會努力尋找迷羊,像尋找失落的金錢嗎?(路15:8-10

(十四)天父會比不義的官更差嗎?(路18:1-8

(十五)在神面前,誰能自義和驕傲呢?(路18:9-14

(十六)路加福音的一些特色和重點

路加是最長的福音書

馬太:1071

馬可:678

路加:1151

約翰:869

http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_75c062830102vfae.html

http://fungclass.fhl.net/S_gospel/15.pdf