1225日聖誕節的來源:網絡一些分析文章

 

回華人神學園地主頁

蔡少琪

信仰與時代

 

一些詳細介紹聖誕節來源的文章(包括一些詳細解釋傳統聖誕節來源的文章)

How December 25 Became Christmas by Andrew McGowan: The most loudly touted theory about the origins of the Christmas date(s) is that it was borrowed from pagan celebrations. Despite its popularity today, this theory of Christmas’s origins has its problems. It is not found in any ancient Christian writings, for one thing. It’s not until the 12th century that we find the first suggestion that Jesus’ birth celebration was deliberately set at the time of pagan feasts. There are problems with this popular theory, however, as many scholars recognize. Most significantly, the first mention of a date for Christmas (c. 200) and the earliest celebrations that we know about (c. 250–300) come in a period when Christians were not borrowing heavily from pagan traditions of such an obvious character. The December 25 feast seems to have existed before 312—before Constantine and his conversion, at least. There is another way to account for the origins of Christmas on December 25: Strange as it may seem, the key to dating Jesus’ birth may lie in the dating of Jesus’ death at Passover. In the end we are left with a question: How did December 25 become Christmas? We cannot be entirely sure. Elements of the festival that developed from the fourth century until modern times may well derive from pagan traditions. Yet the actual date might really derive more from Judaism—from Jesus’ death at Passover, and from the rabbinic notion that great things might be expected, again and again, at the same time of the year—than from paganism.

Was Jesus Really Born on Dec 25? Yes - A Biblical Argument for the Birth of Christ in Late December,” Posted by Dr. Taylor Marshall  (Catholic approach): Objection 3: Christ could not have been born in December since Saint Luke describes shepherds herding in the neighboring fields of Bethlehem. Shepherds do not herd during the winter. Thus, Christ was not born in winter. Answer to Objection 3: This objection is the worst objection of all. Recall that Palestine is not England, Russia, or Alaska. Bethlehem has a latitude of 31.7. My city of Dallas, Texas has the latitude of 32.8 and it's still rather comfortable outside in December. As the great Cornelius a Lapide remarks during his lifetime, one could still see shepherds and sheep in the fields of Italy during late December...and Italy is geographically to the north of Bethlehem. [Most importantly, there is no historical record for a celebration Sol Invictus on December 25 prior to AD 354. Moreover, the tradition of a December 25th celebration does not find a place on the Roman calender until after the Christianization of Rome. The "Birthday of the Unconquered Son" holiday was scarcely traditional and hardly popular. Saturnalia (mentioned above) was much more popular, traditional, and fun.]

On what date was Jesus born?

Saying that Jesus could not be born in December is a lie. The World Book Encyclopedia, copyright 1974, volume 10, page 390, when describing the climate of Israel says:      "In January, the coolest month, temperatures average 45º F ( 7º C ) in Northern Galilee, and 60º F ( 16º C ) in the Rift Valley. The Northern uplands have some days of freezing weather almost every winter.  Rain falls almost entirely in winter, and generally decreases from North to South. Snow sometimes falls in Northern and central parts of Israel."  As stated, January is the coolest month, not December. In the coolest month temperatures average 45º F ( 7º C ) just in the North. That temperature is not so cold that the shepherds can't stay outside. But more to the South, it averages 60º F ( 16º C ), still a more comfortable temperature even in January the coolest month. Therefore, December must be even warmer, because January is the coolest month.

 

 

相關題目:關於主耶穌在那年出生的一些分析網站(不同網站有不同計算的立場和結果)

Chronology of Jesus--wiki

聖誕節- 維基百

Christmas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

DATING THE BIRTH OF JESUS OF NAZARETH

The historical record can provide reliable dates for the most of the men mentioned in this passage:

l  Tiberius Caesar succeeded Augustus Caesar on the 19th of August 14AD.

l  Pontus Pilate was appointed governor of Judea from 26-36 AD.

l  Herod Antipas was tetrarch of the Galilee from 4BC/1BC to 39AD.

l  Philip Herod was tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis from c. 4BC/1BC-34AD.

l  Annas was High Priest from 6AD-15AD and his son-in-law, Caiaphas, was High Priest from 18AD-36AD, but Annas still wielded the power (John 18:12-13).

From the year calculated as the beginning of St. John the Baptist's ministry and the information concerning the difference in months between John and Jesus' conceptions, it can be calculated that both St. John and Jesus' births were probably in year 3/2 BC.

The earliest mention that I have been able to find identifying the birth of Jesus as December 25th comes from a document entitled The Constitution of the Holy Apostles. Most scholars agree that the first six books cannot be written later than the 300s and some scholars argue that it may have been written in the 200's or even earlier. The Constitution of the Holy Apostles contains instructions on the celebration of the Holy Days.  Book V, section 3 of the Constitution of the Holy Apostles begins with the subject heading and then addresses the Holy Days including the celebration of the Lord's birthday:  ON FEAST DAYS AND FAST DAYS:  A CATALOGUE OF THE FEASTS OF THE LORD WHICH ARE TO BE KEPT, AND WHEN EACH OF THEM OUGHT TO BE OBSERVED.  XIII. Brethren, observe the festival days; and first of all the birthday which you are to celebrate on the twenty-fifth of the ninth month....  The ancient date of the Constitution can be verified by the fact that its authors were still using the Jewish liturgical calendar.  The "ninth month" in the Old Covenant liturgical calendar is our December, since their liturgical year began with the spring equinox which fell in late March/ early April according to our modern calendar, as did the old Roman calendar before Julius Caesar introduced his calendar reform.

沒有公元O年:  In 525AD mathematician, Abbot Dennis the Short, rejected the old Roman calendar which was dated from the founding of the pagan city of Rome and established a new calendar, which he dated from what he calculated as the year of the birth of Christ (designated as year 1 Anno Domini= "in the year of our Lord").  He decided to date the beginning of the civil calendar year with Jesus' entrance into the Old Covenant faith according to the Old Covenant Law.  This event was commanded, since the time of God's covenant with Abraham, to take place eight days after the birth of a male child (Genesis 17:9-12; 21:2-4).  Counting December 25th as day one, which was the ancient custom since there was no concept of 0-place value, the eighth day was January 1st.

Since the late 19th century most biblical scholars have accepted Kepler's discovery as proof that Herod died in 4BC and therefore assume that Jesus must have been born in year 7 or 6BC, completely ignoring St. Luke's testimony in Luke 3:1-2 in determining the year of Jesus' birth.

Christmas - Was Jesus born on December 25th?Circumstantial Evidences:  Church history since the time of the late first century has attested to a late December birth. Hippolytus, in the second century AD, argued that this was Christ's birthday. In the fourth century, John Chrysostom (347-407) argued that December 25th was the correct date. Chrysostom taught that Zechariah received the message about John's birth on the Day of Atonement and John the Baptist was born sometime in June or July, and the birth of Yeshua took place six months later, in late December (or early January). There was never a question about the period of Yeshua's birth either in the East or in the West; only in the recent years this date was challenged. Early Jewish sources suggest that the sheep around Bethlehem were outside year-round. In the normal traffic of shepherds  they move around and come near Bethlehem from November to March of the year. But then these were a special class of Levitical shepherds who kept the sacrificial lambs. They do not move around because they supply the lambs for daily sacrifice from whom people bought their approved lambs, which are blemishless. The fact that the Angels announced the arrival of the perfect sacrificial lamb to these shepherds indicates this.

Was Jesus born in winter? The temperature around Jerusalem and Bethlehem is fairly temperate in the winter. Only a small amount of rain falls on the eastern slopes of the central mountain range. The average monthly temperature for Jerusalem ranges from 47° to 56°. Rain can make it chilly. In fact, when I first began traveling to Israel and Jordan in the mid-60s it was common for Bedouin shepherds to move with the seasons. In the summer we would see them in the mountains of Lebanon. In winter months they would move to warmer, desert areas. Today, we find many Bedouin shepherds watching their sheep on the eastern slopes year round, including the winter months.

 

What are some of the most common misconceptions about Jesus Christ’s birth?

Shepherds in Bethlehem (Luke 2:8-20)

 

一些反對慶祝聖誕節的文章

基督徒應否慶祝聖誕節? Charles Halff  陳激成譯Should Christians Celebrate Christmas? Charles Halff, Director The Christian Jew Foundation